Legal framework of the Cameroonian air transport

 

The operation of civil aviation obeys to international standards and recommendations commonly agreed upon by States under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and applied uniformly throughout the world.

Cameroon, from its accession to international sovereignty, adhered to the Chicago Convention which established the rules under which international aviation operates and created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the branch of the United Nations organization responsible for fostering the planning and development of international air transport. Cameroon also ratified the agreement relative to the Transit of International Air Services and other international instruments such as the Geneva Convention on the international recognition of rights in Aircrafts, the Rome Convention , the Warsaw Convention and the Montreal Convention (formally, the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air).
At the African level, Cameroon is a member of the African Civil Aviation Commission (AFCAC) and a signatory to the Yamoussoukro Decision on the liberalization of air service markets in Africa. Cameroon is equally part of the Dakar Convention governing the Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA). In this regards, this international body has been entrusted with the management of air navigation services in Cameroon. This management is carried out directly by the Representation of ASECNA in Cameroon.
At the national level, Law No. 2013/010 of 24 July 2013 on civil aviation regime in Cameroon was promulgated to organize the exercise of civil aviation activities in Cameroon, promote free competition and the participation of private initiatives and to ensure the rational and efficient use of aeronautical infrastructure and the airspace.
As per the international instruments cited above and national regulations in force, all aircrafts operated in Cameroon shall be registered with the Cameroon Civil Aviation Authority after due inspection and testing by the said aeronautic authority and, a certificate of airworthiness, noise certificate and a certificate of exploitation of radio-electric installation issued before a certificate of registration is delivered. This certificate of registration gives the aircraft Cameroonian nationality. When deregistration is done at any future date, the aircraft loses its Cameroonian nationality.
See also Acquisition of an air transport certificate in Cameroon.

     

How to obtain an Air Operator’s Licence in Cameroon

To operate as an air transporter in Cameroon, an enterprise must obtain an Air Operator’s License and an Air Operator’s Certificate from the CCAA.

 An Air Operator’s License is a document granted to an enterprise by the Cameroon Civil Aviation Authority (CCAA), authorizing it to carry out, against payment of a fee, air transportation of passengers, mail and/or fright as indicated on the licence.

The said document attests that an enterprise has satisfied the legal, financial, economic and moral conditions required by the regulations in force.   To obtain an Air Operator’s Licence, an enterprise has to address a request to the attention of the Director General of the CCAA specifying the kind of air transport activity (regular/Scheduled, non-regular/chattered, or Cargo flights) it intends to operate. 

 

Apart from the above request, the enterprise will have to submit the following information and documents which will permit the CCAA to evaluate the viability and the profitability of the project:

 

 Name and address of the head office of the enterprise;

 A duly registered statute of the enterprise;

 Organisation chart with the names and qualifications of the managers responsible for operations, maintenance, training, operations on the ground and flight safety;

 List of aircraft to be operated and volume of activity envisaged;

 Description of planned operation including zones, routes, airport of destination and   alternative airports and  the main base of operation;

 Projections on traffic and revenue for the first three years;

  Economic study of routes taking into consideration the cost of operation of the aircraft type to be used;

 A marketing strategy that the enterprise intents to adopt; 

 Provisional operations accounts and balance sheets of the enterprise for the first three years;

 Disposition taken with regards to offices, acquisition or lease of aircraft, its maintenance and insurance policy;

 Provisional expenses on fuel, tariffs, mass salaries, aircraft lease, maintenance, aeronautical charges, tax, insurance and training;

 Date of commencement of operations and details of the take-off cost including the source of financing;

 Financial guarantee to cover the cost of operations for the first six months of activities. Upon reception of the preliminary request, the Director General forwards it to the Air Transport Division of the CCAA where the Service for Authorisations carries out an analysis on the legal, economic and financial aspect of the project in order to conclude on its viability and profitability. If the analysis shows that the request is receivable, a certification commission made up of personnel from the following departments directly concern with the certification of an airline is set up, Air Transport and Regulation, Air Security and Flight Safety.  The CCAA then invites the prospective operator and its designated persons for a presentation of the project to the CCAA who in turn enlightens the applicant on the applicable regulations and the activities involved in certification process.

If the commission is convinced based on the documents submitted and the presentation given that the project is viable, a recommendation is made to the Director General for the statute of the enterprise to be forwarded to the General Delegation for National Security for administrative investigation on the shareholders in order to establish the moral guarantee.

If the outcome of the above mentioned investigation is favourable, a report proposing the issuance of an Air Operator’s Licence is submitted for the appreciation of the General Manager.

It is important to note that this document alone does not give an enterprise an air carrier’s title in Cameroon.

After obtaining a license, the enterprise will have to obtain an Air Operator’s Certificate from the CCAA before it can operate as an air carrier in Cameroon.  (See Decree № 2003/2031/PM of 04 September 2003 Relative to the exercise of air transport profession in Cameroon, its subsequent modification of 2012 and Instruction №000355/CCAA/DG/DSA of 09 August 2009 relative to the acquisition of air transporter certificate in Cameroon.)

 

   

AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENTS SIGNED BETWEEN CAMEROON AND PARTNER STATES.

At the international level, each Contracting State of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) grants to other Contracting States, in respect of scheduled international air services, the following air freedoms;

• The right to fly-over its territory without landing, - 1st Freedom;

• The right to land for non-commercial reasons (technical stops), - 2nd Freedom;

• The right to carry passengers or cargo from one's own country to another, - 3rd Freedom;

• The right to carry passengers or cargo from another country to one's own territory 4th Freedom;

• The right to carry passengers, mail and cargo from one's own country to a second Contracting country and from that country to any other contracting country (and so on), - 5th Freedom.

Since its adhesion to the Convention on international Civil Aviation on the 15th January 1960, and the ratification on 30th March 1960 of the agreement relative to the Transit of International Air Services, Cameroon has undertaken to complete its multifaceted cooperation through the conclusion of bilateral agreements with third countries. These bilateral treaties establish the modalities of regulating the activity of air transport and rule on the aerial relationships between pairs of states.

To date, the portfolio of aviation agreements negotiated by the government of Cameroon contains about sixty two (62) instruments. The movement of people and goods by air between Cameroon and foreign countries is governed by these Bilateral Air Service Agreements (BASAs) which vary in their degree of restrictiveness and intensity. As the custodian of Cameroon’s portfolio of bilateral air services agreements, the CCAA, in the context of air transport liberalization and to conform to the new government policy of competition, engaged in a process of modernization and expansion of these BASAs with trading partner states to encourage the development of new markets, new services and greater competition.

Actually, Cameroon has sixty-two (62) BASAs negotiated with third countries, classified as follows:

40 BASAs with African states

11 BASAs with European states

01 BASAs with a South American state (Brazil)

01 BASA with a North American state (USA)

04 BASAs with Middle East states

05 BASAs with Asian states

See List of Cameroon BASAs with third countries (ACCORDS AERIENS CONCLUS PAR LE CAMEROUN AVEC LES ETATS TIERS)

ACCORDS AERIENS CONCLUS PAR LE CAMEROUN AVEC LES ETATS TIERS

Etats tiers

Date de paraphe

Date de signature ou de dernière révision

Date de ratification

Statut

Portée

Conformité à la Décision de Yamoussoukro

Observations

Algérie

16/10/1974

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

totale

 

Angola

23/03/1995

24/08/2011

 

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Arabie Saoudite

18/11/2014

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

 

 

 

Autriche

22/10/2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belgique

27/08/2008

14/07/2011

 

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

                   -    

 

Benin

15/10/1982

08/08/2008

 

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Brésil

19/01/2006

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

                   -    

 

Burkina Faso

23/11/2001

15/05/2003

 

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Burundi

24/03/1977

 

Décret  n°77/253 du 20/07/77

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Centrafrique

30/10/1971

26/02/2004

Décret  n°71/DF/621  du 14/12/71

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Chine

19/08/2009

21/04/2011

Décret n°2013/291 du 22/10/2013

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

                   -    

 

Congo

07/08/2009

20/12/2012

 

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Congo Démocratique

29/06/1973

06/02/2003

Décret  n°73/390 du  25/07/73

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Côte d'Ivoire

23/02/1973

02/12/2002 et 20 /11/2014

 

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Egypte

03/06/1966

10/03/1998

Décret  n°66/DF/422 du 22/08/66

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

partielle

 

Emirats Arabes Unis

24/01/2000

15-avr-15

 

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé/open sky

                   -    

 

Espagne

05/08/2004

21/11/2012

 

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

 

 

Etats-Unis

 

16/02/2006

 

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé/open sky

 

 

Ethiopie

03/08/1973

28/08/2003

Décret n°79/418 du 13/10/79

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

France

21/02/1974

22/04/2008

Décret  n°74/663 du 19/07/74

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

 

 

Gabon

16/05/1975

05/08/2003

 

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Gambie

05/04/2007

 

 

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Guinée Equatoriale

18/01/1974

27/09/2002

 

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Guinée Conakry

30/11/2006

22/10/2015

 

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Ghana

06/08/1976

 

Décret  n° 76/431 du 17/09/76

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Inde

22/10/2011

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

 

 

Islande

22/10/2015

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

 

 

 

Israël

14/06/1962

09/08/1963

Décret  n° 63/DF/294 du 23/08/63

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

 

 

Italie

13/07/1968

13/05/1981

 

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

 

 

Kenya

17/06/1988

MOU révisé le 31/05/2000

 

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

Libéria

03/05/1977

 

Décret  n°77/521 du 20/12/1977

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

totale

 

Libye

30/08/2005

29/03/2006

 

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Luxembourg

20/11/2014

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

libéralisé

 

 

Madagascar

25/02/2003

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Mali

17/03/1964

19/10/2015

Décret  n°64/DF/124 du 06/04/94

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Malawi

21/08/1991

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

totale

 

Namibie

15/04/1991

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Niger

21/11/2002

 

 

 

liberalisé

totale

 

Nigeria

04/07/2003

11/10/2011

 

Mis en œuvre

libéralisé

totale

 

RDA

21/07/1989

 

Décret n° du  30 janvier 1990

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

 

RFA

22/10/1964

05/05/1983

Décret n°66/DF/423 du 22/08/1966

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

Pays Bas

07/09/1971

25/04/2001 et 20/11/2014

Décret  n°71/DF/423
du 30/09/71N°2350

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

 

Qatar

19/10/2011

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

 

 

Royaume du Maroc

23/02/2005

24/01/2007

 

Mis en œuvre

restrictif

partielle

 

Royaume uni de Grande Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord

11/09/1981

19/01/1990

Décret  n°82/329 du  17/07/82

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

 

 

Rwanda

11/10/2012

06/11/2013

 

Pas encore exploité

liberalisé

totale

 

République Sud Africaine

28/10/2008

14/06/2011

 

Mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Sao Tome é Principe

07/06/2007

17/12/2008

 

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Sénégal

30/05/1973

18/10/2005

Décret  n° 73/362
du 13/07/73

Mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Sierra Leone

28/08/1978

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Singapour

19/11/2014

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

 

 

 

Soudan

20/12/2006

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Suisse

18/07/2003

13/01/2009

Décret n°2010/345 du 19 -11- 10.

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

 

 

Tanzanie

08/08/1991

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

partielle

 

Tchad

14/05/2005

31/08/2005

Décret n°73/347 du 10 juillet 1973

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Togo

28/03/1977

24/08/2006

 

Mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Tunisie

11/04/2004

10/05/2006

 

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale

 

Turquie

26/04/2006

18/10/2012

 

Mis en œuvre

liberalisé

 

 

URSS

11/11/1979

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

 

 

Viet Nam

20/10/2015

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

 

 

 

Zambie

16/08/1991

 

 

Non mis en œuvre

restrictif

 

 

Zimbabwe

09/04/1991

04/06/2009

 

Non mis en œuvre

liberalisé

totale